The U.S. Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is announcing its decision to deregulate two apple varieties genetically engineered (GE) to resist browning.
APHIS is taking this action based on a final plant pest risk assessment (PPRA) that finds the GE apples are unlikely to pose a plant pest risk to agriculture and other plants in the United States. APHIS also completed an environmental assessment (EA) to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that finds deregulation is not likely to have a significant impact on the human environment.
Under APHIS regulations, pursuant to the Plant Protection Act (PPA), APHIS is specifically required to evaluate if the apple varieties are a plant pest risk to agricultural crops or other plants or plant products. The Act defines a plant pest as organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or insects that can cause harm to agricultural crops or other plants or plant products. If APHIS finds through its rigorous scientific review that a new GE plant is unlikely to pose a plant pest risk, then under the law and its regulations, it is required to deregulate the GE plant.
These varieties, developed by Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc. (OSF), will be marketed as the Arctic Granny and Arctic Golden. OSF is also currently engaging in a voluntary food safety assessment consultation with the Food and Drug Administration regarding its Arctic Apples.
APHIS final PPRA and final environmental assessment can be found at